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Assessing the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms: From the lethality neutralization assay to antivenomics
The assessment of the capacity of antivenoms to neutralize the lethal activity of snake venoms is the gold standard in the preclinical analysis of antivenom efficacy, and is routinely performed by manufacturers and quality ...
Factors associated with adverse reactions induced by caprylic acid-fractionated whole IgG preparations: comparison between horse, sheep and camel IgGs
Caprylic acid purification of IgG, currently used in the manufacture of horse-derived antivenoms, was successfully adapted for the preparation of sheep and camel IgG. Sheep IgG had a molecular mass of approximately 150 ...
Preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of antivenoms for snakebite envenoming: State-of-the-art and challenges ahead
Animal-derived antivenoms constitute the mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming. The efficacy of antivenoms to neutralize toxicity of medically-relevant snake venoms has to be demonstrated through meticulous ...
Human heterophilic antibodies against equine immunoglobulins: assessment of their role in the early adverse reactions to antivenom administration
The presence of human heterophilic antibodies against horse immunoglobulins (HHA-HI) was determined by ELISA in sera from healthy volunteers and from patients who received equine antivenom for therapy of snake bite ...
Proteomic and toxinological characterization of the venom of the South African Ringhals cobra Hemachatus haemachatus
The protein composition and toxinological profile of the venom of the African spitting elapid Hemachatus haemachatus (Ringhals) were characterized by bottom-up proteomics and functional in vitro and in vivo assays. Venom ...