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Stability of equine IgG antivenoms obtained by caprylic acid precipitation: Towards a liquid formulation stable at tropical room temperature
Liquid formulations of antivenom require a cold chain for their distribution and storage, especially in tropical countries characterized by high temperature and humidity (climatic zone IV). Since cold chain is often deficient ...
Effect of geographical variation of Echis ocellatus, Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans venoms on their neutralization by homologous and heterologous antivenoms
Two antivenoms prepared by using Echis ocellatus, Bitis arietans and Naja nigricollis venoms from different locations in sub-Saharan Africa were compared for their neutralizing ability. Both antivenoms were similarly ...
Neutralization of Bothrops mattogrossensis snake venom from Bolivia: Experimental evaluation of llama and donkey antivenoms produced by caprylic acid precipitation
Polyspecific bothropic/crotalic and bothropic/lachesic antivenoms were produced in Bolivia by immunizing two donkeys with the venoms of Bothrops mattogrossensis and Crotalus durissus terrificus and one llama with the venoms ...
Assessing the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms: From the lethality neutralization assay to antivenomics
The assessment of the capacity of antivenoms to neutralize the lethal activity of snake venoms is the gold standard in the preclinical analysis of antivenom efficacy, and is routinely performed by manufacturers and quality ...
Study of the design and analytical properties of the lethality neutralization assay used to estimate antivenom potency against Bothrops asper snake venom
The lethality neutralization assay performed in mice is the standard recommended by the World Health Organization to estimate antivenom potency. The interpretation of its results without considering its analytical capacity ...
Preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of antivenoms for snakebite envenoming: State-of-the-art and challenges ahead
Animal-derived antivenoms constitute the mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming. The efficacy of antivenoms to neutralize toxicity of medically-relevant snake venoms has to be demonstrated through meticulous ...