La franc-maçonnerie dans l’Europe napoléonienne. De l’échec de l’Europe maçonnique française a la transformation de la société des maçons
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For a long period of time, the slow modernization of social history characterized the masonic historiography and the Napolean period. This paper was presented on the bicentenary of the Grand Orient of Italy in Milan in May 200 and it aims to show the need to target a different perspective on this period. In this regard, several recent studies on this topic show that far from the canonical view, the study of the practices of the Masonic lodges initiated between 1804 and 1815 gave birth to new types of diverse social and political behavior, showing in fact that the Napoleonic period should rather be seen as a time when Masonic national identities were established rather than as a period of manipulation.