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Sexual dimorphism in the second-to-fourth digit length ratio in green anoles, Anolis carolinensis (Squamata: Polychrotidae), from the southeastern United States
Digit length ratios are organized during embryonic development and may show sexual dimorphism related to steroid exposure. The second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) has received the most attention. In the present ...
Poison frogs, quick guide
What are poison frogs? Poison frogs, also commonly called ‘dart poison frogs’ or ‘poison arrow frogs’, are charismatic amphibians forming a spectacular adaptive radiation, comparable to that of African cichlids. Many of ...
Rhinella yunga. Predation
Rhinella yunga, a recently described toad species of the Rhinella margaritifera group (Moravec et al. 2014. Zookeys 37:35–56), is known from the tropical mountains of the Cordillera Yanachaga, Junin Province, Peru. Rhinella ...
Empirical evidence for multiple costs of begging in poison frog tadpoles
In recent decades, theoretical and empirical work has investigated the relative roles of costs and benefits in inhibiting excessive displays of begging to parents. Whether costs are important in maintaining reliability of ...
Tadpole begging reveals high quality
Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources non randomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e. begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We ...
To beg or to freeze: multimodal sensory integration directs behavior in a tadpole
Effective coordination of behaviors such as foraging and avoiding predators requires an assessment of cues provided by other organisms. Integrating cues from multiple sensory modalities may enhance the assessment. We studied ...
Prolonged development of the middle ear in Rhinella horribilis
Despite the benefit of the tympanic middle ear to airborne hearing sensitivity, anurans range in how soon they develop functional middle ears after transitioning to life on land. Previous evi- dence suggested that bufonids ...
Developmental morphology of granular skin glands in pre-metamorphic egg-eating poison frogs
Parents in many taxa, including insects, mol- luscs, fish, snakes, and amphibians provision chemical defences, such as peptides, steroids, or alkaloids to their offspring to reduce the risk of predation. In most cases, ...
Sexual dimorphism of the second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D : 4D) in the Strawberry Poison Dart Frog (Oophaga pumilio) in Costa Rica
The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D) is a well-studied sexual dimorphism that likely arises as a result of prenatal androgenic effects on homeobox gene expression. This dimorphism has been found to exhibit interesting ...
Rhaebo haematiticus (litter toad) and Craugastor fitzingeri (Fitzinger's rain frog) reproductive behavior
C. fitzingeri was observed in amplexus with a large female R. haematiticus at Sarapiquí, Costa Rica