The Opposing Actions of Arabidopsis CHROMOSOME TRANSMISSION FIDELITY7 and WINGS APART-LIKE1 and 2 Differ in Mitotic and Meiotic Cells
Bolaños Villegas, Pablo Alberto
Makaroff, Christopher A.
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Sister chromatid cohesion, which is mediated by the cohesin complex, is essential for the proper segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. Stable binding of cohesin with chromosomes is regulated in part by the opposing actions of CTF7 (CHROMOSOME TRANSMISSION FIDELITY7) and WAPL (WINGS APART-LIKE). In this study, we characterized the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana CTF7 and WAPL by conducting a detailed analysis of wapl1-1 wapl2 ctf7 plants. ctf7 plants exhibit major defects in vegetative growth and development and are completely sterile. Inactivation of WAPL restores normal growth, mitosis, and some fertility to ctf7 plants. This shows that the CTF7/WAPL cohesin system is not essential for mitosis in vegetative cells and suggests that plants may contain a second mechanism to regulate mitotic cohesin. WAPL inactivation restores cohesin binding and suppresses ctf7-associated meiotic cohesion defects, demonstrating that WAPL and CTF7 function as antagonists to regulate meiotic sister chromatid cohesion. The ctf7 mutation only had a minor effect on wapl-associated defects in chromosome condensation and centromere association. These results demonstrate that WAPL has additional roles that are independent of its role in regulating chromatin-bound cohesin.
ORCID IDs: 0000-0001-9729-9608 (K.D.); 0000-0003-1729-0561 (P.B.-V.); 0000-0001-8830-4663 (G.H.); 0000-0003-3459-1331 (G.-Y.J.); 0000-0001-6237-1868 (C.A.M.)
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