Epidemiology and Outcomes of Bloodstream Infections in Patients With Solid Tumors in a Central American Population at Mexico Hospital, San Jose, Costa Rica
Calvo Lon, Jorge Carlos
Landaverde Recinos, Denis
Ramos Esquivel, Allan Eduardo
Villalobos Vindas, Juan M.
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Purpose Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an important cause of mortality in patients with solid tumors. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the epidemiologic profile and mortality of patients with solid tumors who have BSIs and were admitted to Mexico Hospital. This is the first study in Costa Rica and Central America describing the current epidemiologic situation. Methods We analyzed the infectious disease database for BSIs in patients with solid tumors admitted to Mexico Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. Epidemiology and mortality were obtained according to microorganism, antibiotic sensitivity, tumor type, and presence of central venous catheter (CVC). Descriptive statistics were used. Results A total of 164 BSIs were recorded, the median age was 58 years, 103 patients (63%) were males, and 128 cases of infection (78%) were the result of gram-negative bacilli (GNB). Klebsiella pneumoniae (21%), Escherichia coli (21%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15%) were the most common microorganisms isolated. Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were found in 36 patients, with the most frequent microorganisms being Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and Staphyloccocus epidermidis (6%). With respect to tumor type, BSIs were more frequent in the GI tract (57%) followed by head and neck (9%) and genitourinary tract (8%). Regarding antibiotic susceptibility, only 17% (GNB) expressed extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and 12% (GPC) had methicillin resistance. Patients with CVCs (n = 59) were colonized mainly by GNB (78%). Overall the mortality rate at 30 days was about 30%. Conclusion GNB are the most frequent cause of BSIs in solid tumors and in patients with CVCs. GI cancers had more BSIs than other sites. Mortality and antibiotic sensitivity remained stable and acceptable during this observational period in this Latin American population.
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