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dc.creatorBermúdez Méndez, Erick
dc.creatorFuglsang Madsen, Albert
dc.creatorFons, Sofie
dc.creatorLomonte, Bruno
dc.creatorGutiérrez, José María
dc.creatorHougaard Laustsen, Andreas
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-15T16:08:25Z
dc.date.available2019-01-15T16:08:25Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.citationhttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/10/11/452es_ES
dc.identifier.issn2072-6651
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10669/76389
dc.description.abstractSnakes, scorpions, and spiders are venomous animals that pose a threat to human health, and severe envenomings from the bites or stings of these animals must be treated with antivenom. Current antivenoms are based on plasma-derived immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments from hyper-immunized animals. Although these medicines have been life-saving for more than 120 years, opportunities to improve envenoming therapy exist. In the later decades, new biotechnological tools have been applied with the aim of improving the efficacy, safety, and affordability of antivenoms. Within the avenues explored, novel immunization strategies using synthetic peptide epitopes, recombinant toxins (or toxoids), or DNA strings as immunogens have demonstrated potential for generating antivenoms with high therapeutic antibody titers and broad neutralizing capacity. Furthermore, these approaches circumvent the need for venom in the production process of antivenoms, thereby limiting some of the complications associated with animal captivity and venom collection. Finally, an important benefit of innovative immunization approaches is that they are often compatible with existing antivenom manufacturing setups. In this review, we compile all reported studies examining venom-independent innovative immunization strategies for antivenom development. In addition, a brief description of toxin families of medical relevance found in snake, scorpion, and spider venoms is presented, as well as how biochemical, bioinformatic, and omics tools could aid the development of next-generation antivenoms.es_ES
dc.language.isoen_USes_ES
dc.rightsCC BY 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.sourceToxins, vol.10(11), pp. 1-37.es_ES
dc.subjectAnimal envenominges_ES
dc.subjectAntivenom developmentes_ES
dc.subjectImmunizationes_ES
dc.subjectSynthetic epitopees_ES
dc.subjectRecombinant toxines_ES
dc.subjectDNA immunizationes_ES
dc.subjectNeutralizationes_ES
dc.subjectOmics technologieses_ES
dc.subjectBioinformaticses_ES
dc.subjectHigh-density peptide microarray technologyes_ES
dc.subjectSnakebite envenominges_ES
dc.subjectScorpion envenominges_ES
dc.subjectSpider envenominges_ES
dc.subject615.94 Venenos animaleses_ES
dc.titleInnovative immunization strategies for antivenom developmentes_ES
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articlees_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/toxins10110452
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias de la Salud::Instituto Clodomiro Picado (ICP)es_ES
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Docencia::Salud::Facultad de Farmaciaes_ES


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CC BY 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as CC BY 4.0 International