A secreted phospholipase A2 induces formation of smooth muscle foam cells which trans-differentiate to macrophage-like state
Giannotti, Karina Cristina
Viana, Mariana Nascimento
Araujo, Thaís L. S.
Laurindo, Francisco R. M.
Braun Dullaeus, Rüdiger
Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima
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Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) loaded with lipid droplets (LDs) are markers of atherosclerosis. In this disease, inflammatory Group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2s (GIIA sPLA2s) are highly expressed in VSMCs, but their actions in these cells are unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of myotoxin III (MT-III), an ophidian GIIA sPLA2 sharing structural and functional features with mammalian GIIA sPLA2s, to induce LD formation and lipid metabolism factors involved in this e ect. Modulation of VSMC phenotypes by this sPLA2 was also evaluated. Incubation of VSMCs with MT-III significantly increased the number of LDs. MT-III upregulated scavenger receptor type 1 (SR-A1) and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) protein expression and enhanced acetylated-low density lipoprotein (acLDL) uptake by VSMCs, revealing the ability of a GIIA PLA2 to modulate scavenger receptor activities. MT-III induced translocation and protein expression of PPAR- and - / . Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT) and acyl-CoA:cholesterolacyltransferase (ACAT) enzymes abrogatedMT-III-induced LD formation. Moreover, in response toMT-III, VSMCs acquired phagocytic activity and expressed macrophage markers CD68 and MAC-2. In conclusion, MT-III is able to stimulate VSMCs and recruit factors involved in lipid uptake and metabolism, leading to the formation of VSMC-derived foam cells with acquisition of macrophage-like markers and functions.
Enlace externo al ítem10.3390/molecules24183244
- Microbiología