Copulation behaviour of Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Muscidae) outside and inside the female, with a discussion of genitalic evolution
Briceño Lobo, Daniel
Eberhard Chabtree, William G.
Robinson, A. S.
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If species-specific male genitalia are courtship devices under sexual selection by cryptic female choice, then species-specific aspects of the morphology and behaviour of male genitalia should often function to stimulate the female during copulation. The morphology and behaviour of the complex, species-specific male genitalia of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes Austen, were determined from both direct observations and dissections of flash-frozen copulating pairs; and we found that some male genitalic traits probably function to stimulate the female, while others function to restrain her. The male clamps the ventral surface of the female’s abdomen tightly with his powerful cerci. Clamping does not always result in intromission. Clamping bends the female’s body wall and her internal reproductive tract sharply, posteriorly and dorsally, and pinches them tightly. Males performed sustained, complex, stereotyped, rhythmic squeezing movements with his cerci that were not necessary to mechanically restrain the female and appeared instead to have a stimulatory function. Six different groups of modified setae, on and near the male’s genitalia, rub directly against particular sites on the female during squeezing. The designs of these setae correlate with the force with which they press on the female and the probable sensitivity of the female surfaces that they contact. As expected under the hypothesis that these structures are under sexual selection by female choice, several traits suspected to have stimulatory functions have diverged in G. pallidipes and its close relative, G. longipalpis. Additional male non-genitalic behaviour during copulation, redescribed more precisely than in previous publications, is also likely to have a courtship function. The elaborate copulatory courtship behaviour and male genitalia may provide the stimuli that previous studies showed induce female ovulation and resistance to remating.
artículo (arbitrado)--Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, 2007
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