Molecular Determinants of Antibiotic Resistance in the Costa Rican Pseudomonas aeruginosa AG1 by a Multi-omics Approach: A Review of 10 Years of Study
Molina Mora, José Arturo
García Santamaría, Fernando
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa AG1 (PaeAG1) is a Costa Rican strain that was isolated in 2010 in a major Hospital. This strain has resistance to multiple antibiotics such as β-lactams (including carbapenems), aminoglycosides, and fuoroquinolones. PaeAG1 is considered critical (Priority 1) due to its resistance to carbapenems, and it was the frst report of a P. aeruginosa isolate carrying both VIM-2 and IMP-18 genes encoding for metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) enzymes (both with carbapenemase activity). Owing to these traits, we have studied this model for 10 years using diverse approaches including multi-omics. In this review, we summarize the main points of the diferent steps that we have studied in PaeAG1: preliminary analyses of this strain at the genomic and phenomic levels revealed that this microorganism has particular features of antibiotic resistance. In the multi-omics approach, the genome assembly was the initial step to identify the genomic determinants of this strain, including virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes, as well as a complex accessory genome. Second, a comparative genomic approach was implemented to defne and update the phylogenetic relationship among complete P. aeruginosa genomes, the genomic island content in other strains, and the architecture of the two MBL-carrying integrons. Third, the proteomic profle of PaeAG1 was studied after exposure to antibiotics using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). Fourth, to study the central response to multiple perturbations in P. aeruginosa, i.e., the core perturbome, a machine learning approach was used. The analysis revealed biological functions and determinants that are shared by diferent disturbances. Finally, to evaluate the efects of ciprofoxacin (CIP) on PaeAG1, a growth curve comparison, diferential expression analysis (RNASeq), and network analysis were performed. Using the results of the core perturbome (pathways that also were found in this perturbation with CIP), it was possible to identify the “exclusive” response and determinants of PaeAG1 after exposure to CIP. Altogether, after a decade of study using a multi-omics approach (at genomics, comparative genomics, perturbomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and phenomics levels), we have provided new insights about the genomic and transcriptomic determinants associated with antibiotic resistance in PaeAG1. These results not only partially explain the high-risk condition of this strain that enables it to conquer nosocomial environments and its multi-resistance profle, but also this information may eventually be used as part of the strategies to fght this pathogen.
External link to the item10.1007/s43657-021-00016-z
- Microbiología