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dc.creatorChacón Jiménez, Luz María
dc.creatorArias Andrés, María de Jesús
dc.creatorMena Torres, Freylan
dc.creatorRivera Montero, Luis César
dc.creatorHernández Gómez, Lorena
dc.creatorAchí Araya, María Rosario
dc.creatorGarcía Santamaría, Fernando
dc.creatorRojas Jiménez, Keilor Osvaldo
dc.date.accessioned2022-05-04T21:09:40Z
dc.date.available2022-05-04T21:09:40Z
dc.date.issued2021-12
dc.identifier.citationhttps://iwaponline.com/jwh/article/19/6/895/84531/Short-term-exposure-to-benzalkonium-chloride-ines_ES
dc.identifier.issn1477-8920
dc.identifier.issn1996-7829
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10669/86543
dc.description.abstractThe continuous introduction of cleaning products containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC) from household discharges can mold the microbial communities in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in a way still poorly understood. In this study, we performed an in vitro exposure of activated sludge from a WWTP in Costa Rica to BAC, quantified the changes in intI1, sul2, and qacE/qacEΔ1 gene profiles, and determined alterations in the bacterial community composition. The analysis of the qPCR data revealed elevated charges of antibiotic resistance genes in the microbial community; after BAC’s exposure, a significant increase in the qacE/qacEΔ1 gene, which is related to ammonium quaternary resistance, was observed. The 16S rRNA gene sequences’ analysis showed pronounced variations in the structure of the bacterial communities, including reduction of the alpha diversity values and an increase of the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, particularly of Rhodospseudomonas and Rhodobacter. We confirmed that the microbial communities presented high resilience to BAC at the mg/mL concentration, probably due to constant exposure to this pollutant. They also presented antibiotic resistance-related genes with similar mechanisms to tolerate this substance. These mechanisms should be explored more thoroughly, especially in the context of high use of disinfectant.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipUniversidad de Costa Rica/[]/UCR/Costa Ricaes_ES
dc.language.isoenges_ES
dc.sourceJournal of Water and Health, vol.16(9), pp.895-906.es_ES
dc.subjectActivated sludgees_ES
dc.subjectAntimicrobial resistancees_ES
dc.subjectBacterial communityes_ES
dc.subjectCenzalkonium chloridees_ES
dc.subjectWastewater treatmentes_ES
dc.titleShort-term exposure to benzalkonium chloride in bacteria from activated sludge alters the community diversity and the antibiotic resistance profilees_ES
dc.typeartículo científicoes_ES
dc.identifier.doiorg/10.2166/wh.2021.171
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Vicerrectoría de Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias de la Salud::Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA)es_ES
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Vicerrectoría de Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias Básicas::Centro de Investigaciones en Productos Naturales (CIPRONA)es_ES
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Vicerrectoría de Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias de la Salud::Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales (CIET)es_ES
dc.description.procedenceUCR::Vicerrectoría de Docencia::Ciencias Básicas::Facultad de Ciencias::Escuela de Biologíaes_ES
dc.identifier.codproyecto742-B8-651


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